- October 4, 1957
Sputnik (83.6 kg) launched
Sputnik II (508.3 kg), with dog Laika as passenger, launched
- February 5, 1958
A second Vanguard try fails
- March 17, 1958
Vanguard 1 (1.47 kg) successfully orbits, establishes the pear-shapedness of Earth
Explorer 3 orbits, collects radiation and micrometeoroid data
Another Vanguard fails to orbit (third failure)
Sputnik III (1,327 kg) orbits, carrying large array of scientific instruments, but tape recorder fails, so it can't map Van Allen belts
- June 26, 1958
Vanguard fails for the fifth time
Explorer 4 orbits and maps Van Allen radiation belts for 2 1/2 months
- September 26, 1958
Vanguard fails for the sixth time
How adenoviral vector-based vaccines work
- 4, 1957, Sputnik 1 successfully launched and entered Earth's orbit. Thus, began the space age. The successful launch shocked the world, giving the former Soviet Union the distinction of putting the first human-made object into space. The word 'Sputnik' originally meant 'fellow traveler,' but has become synonymous with.
- Sputnik is a chilling cold war era sci-fi horror hiding its heart in a pile of guts. It's an absolute must-see for space race nerds and pure nightmare fuel for space horror fans.
- Download File PDF Sputniks Guide To Life On Earth Sputniks Guide To Life On This small, loud stranger carries a backpack, walks with a swagger and goes by the name of Spu. The Blythes are a big, warm, rambunctious family who live on a small farm and sometimes foster children. Now Prez has come to live with them. But, though he seems.
Sputnik, all of 184 pounds with only a radio transmitter inside its highly polished shell, became the first man-made object in space; while it immediately shocked the world, its long-term impact was even greater, for it profoundly changed the shape of the twentieth century.
“Vectors” are vehicles, which can induce a genetic material from another virus into a cell. The gene from adenovirus, which causes the infection, is removed while a gene with the code of a protein from another virus spike is inserted. This inserted element is safe for the body but still helps the immune system to react and produce antibodies, which protect us from the infection.
The technological platform of adenovirus-based vectors makes it easier and faster to create new vaccines through modifying the initial carrier vector with genetic material from new emerging viruses that helps to create new vaccines in relatively short time. Such vaccines provoke a strong response from a human immune system.
Human adenoviruses are considered as some of the easiest to engineer in this way and therefore they have become very popular as vectors.
Advantages of prime-boost immunization approach
Safety and efficacy
After the start of the COVID-19 pandemic Russian researchers extracted a fragment of genetic material from novel coronavirus SARS-COV-2, which codes information about the structure of the spike S-protein, which forms the virus’ “crown” and is responsible for connection with human cells. They inserted it into a familiar adenovirus vector for delivery into a human cell creating the world’s first COVID-19 vaccine.
In order to ensure lasting immunity Russian scientists came up with a breakthrough idea to use two different types of adenovirus vectors (rAd26 and rAd5) for the first and second vaccination, boosting the effect of the vaccine.
The use of human adenoviruses as vectors is safe because these viruses, which cause the common cold, are not novel and have been around for thousands of years.
Efficacy of Sputnik V against COVID-19 was reported at 91.6%. The figure is based on the analysis of data on 19,866 volunteers, who received both the first and second doses of the Sputnik V vaccine or placebo at the final control point of 78 confirmed COVID-19 cases. Sputnik V’s efficacy was validated by internationally peer reviewed data published in The Lancet.
Efficacy against new strains
Sputnik's Guide To Life On Earth Pdf
On 12.07.2021, a study on the efficacy of Sputnik V against new strains of coronavirus was published in the leading international magazine Vaccines by the Gamaleya Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology.
The vaccine produces protective neutralising antibody titres against new strains including Alpha B.1.1.7 (first identified in the UK), Beta B.1.351 (first identified in South Africa), Gamma P.1 (first identified in Brazil), Delta B.1.617.2 and B.1.617.3 (first identified in India) and variants B.1.1.141 and B.1.1.317 with mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) identified in Moscow.
Sputnik' S Guide To Life On Earth Pdf Free Download 2017
The study methodology was based on assessing the viral neutralising activity (VNA) using live virus, which provides the most reliable data and is the accepted standard. The study compared the VNA of human serum after vaccination with Sputnik V on global strain samples with the VNA against the original strain B.1.1.1. Serum was sampled from individuals immunised with both components of Sputnik V.
The data obtained demonstrate that Sputnik V retains its protective properties against new strains. The reduction in viral neutralising activity of Sputnik V against a number of strains was significantly lower compared to data published by manufacturers of other vaccines that earlier confirmed their efficacy against new coronavirus mutations.